Open Access Data Article

Government Expenditure and its Effect on the Industrial Sector in Nigeria

Sydney Ozuzu, Araniyar Isukul

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 81-92
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i730404

This study examined the effect of government expenditure on the growth of the industrial sector in Nigeria. A regression analysis was applied in the analysis of the data. The study found that government capital expenditure has positive and significant effect on the industrial sector; tax has positive and significant effect on the industrial sector; monetary policy rate has positive and significant effect on the growth of the industrial sector, while real interest rate has a negative and no significant effect on the growth of the industrial sector. From the findings, we conclude that government policy has significant effect on the growth of the Nigerian industrial sector. It recommends that government fiscal policies such as public expending should be directed toward improving the quality of infrastructures in the country, especially the power sector, so that the cost of production can reduce. Government should examine should create an enabling environment with the right infrastructure, improve the security situation and reduce the epileptic power supply related issues. Also, government should examine its monetary policy variables such as interest rate and monetary policy rate. Furthermore, to promote growth, government should develop the industrial sectors of the economy through its capital expenditure.

Open Access Minireview Article

Networking, Personality and Institutional Factors on SMEs Internationalization Process: A Literature-Based View

Tasnim Nikmatullah Realita, . Sudarmiatin, Imam Mukhlis

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i730397

SMEs are one of the economic entities that form the backbone of the economy in many countries. SMEs contribute substantial GDP to the country and are one of the solutions for efforts to provide employment and economic performance. However, so far SMEs have only been able to serve the domestic market, even though they have great potential to enter the international market. Not many SMEs are brave and motivated to do pivot businesses by utilizing digital technology and the era of openness to expanding overseas markets. Some many factors are suspected to be the cause. Through the literature review method, this paper seeks to identify the factors that influence SMEs to go international, primarily from the point of view of individual factors and organizational factors. From the results of previous research conducted in many countries, it was found that the individual factors and organizational factors contributed significantly to the decision making of SMEs to Go International.

Open Access Original Research Article

Empirical Analysis of Government Agricultural Spending and Agricultural Output in Nigeria

Bridget Ngodoo Mile, Victor Ushahemba Ijirshar, Simeon T. Asom, Joseph Tarza Sokpo, Joseph Fefa

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 7-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i730398

This study examined the relationship between government agricultural spending and agricultural output in Nigeria using annual time series data from 1981 to 2019. This study used descriptive and analytical techniques such as descriptive statistics, Augmented Dickey-Fuller test, VEC Granger Causality/Block Exogeneity Wald test, Johansen co-integration test, vector error correction test, impulse response, and variance decomposition. The study found that all variables were not stationary at level but became stationary at first difference. The study also revealed that there is a positive effect of government agricultural spending on agricultural output in Nigeria, though, significant in the long-run only. The study also showed that there is a bidirectional relationship between government agricultural spending and agricultural output in Nigeria at 10% level of significance and that agricultural output would respond positively to shocks in government agricultural spending in Nigeria during the forecast period. Therefore, the study recommends that government expenditure on agriculture should be improved upon the funds allocated to the sector and should be made available to real farmers through the provision of fertilizers, improved seedlings and grant aiding to farmers through farmers cooperatives while farmers in Nigeria should form farmers’ cooperatives to be able to easily access credit facilities from banks as well as enhancing their easy access to farm inputs provided by the government. More so, the Nigerian government should also increase the budgetary allocation to the agricultural sector to boost food production, alleviate poverty as well as meet up with the international standard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient in the Nigerian Post-IFRS Implementation Era

Sunny Biobele Beredugo

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i730399

Aims: The study assessed the determinants of earnings response coefficient in the Nigerian Post-IFRS implementation era. It critically looked at the impact of investors' protection, earnings persistency, and systematic risks on earnings response coefficients.

Study design: The study adopted an ex-post facto research design.

Methodology: A sample of 35 companies was drawn from the population of the listed companies in the Nigerian Stock Exchange between 2013 to 2020. Secondary data was used. The Generalized Least Square was used to test the hypotheses

Results: The study shows that the earnings response coefficient improves with the influence of investors’ protection, systematic risk, and earning persistency. Although the influence from systematic risk brings about an inverse effect on ERC, it is a fundamental determinant nonetheless. It was recommended that firms should improve on their investors' protection and that their financial reports should be designed to improve the information contents of accounting earnings to include inherent socio-economic risk, past and prospective earnings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Does Gender Representation at Decision Making Levels Matter for Better Financial Performance of Local Licensed Commercial Banks in Sri Lanka?

S. T. D. Sandanayaka, E. A. G. Sumanasiri

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 32-49
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i730400

Aim: Female representation in top corporate positions has been discussed widely around the world over the last decade, mainly due to the significant gap observed between the number of females with higher educational qualifications and the number of females in employment. Accordingly, this study aims to identify the relationship between the female presence within boardrooms and top management teams of local licensed commercial banks and the financial performance of those banks, which is a timely concern.

Place and Duration of Study: Amana Bank PLC, Commercial Bank of Ceylon PLC, DFCC Bank PLC, Hatton National Bank PLC, National Development Bank PLC, Nations Trust Bank PLC, Pan Asia Banking Corporation PLC, Sampath Bank PLC, Seylan Bank PLC, and Union Bank of Colombo PLC were studied during the time period 2011 to 2019.

Methodology: The time series data analysis method has been used for 10 local licensed commercial banks in Sri Lanka, excluding one bank which was not a PLC. The annual reports of the respective banks were used to gather the secondary data required for the study.

Results: The regression analysis explained that female presence within boardrooms is positive and significant with respect to ROE and positive and insignificant with respect to ROA, whereas females in top management has a positive but insignificant relationship to ROA and a negative but insignificant relationship to ROE. The percentage changes in ROE and ROA explained by the two independent variables are relatively low. Accordingly, no significant relationships between female presence within boardrooms and top management teams and firm financial performance were identified.

Conclusion: The insignificant relationships between the variables indicate that it is not necessary for these banks to employ females in order to prosper in their financial performance. However, the banks could still consider employing females in the boardroom to empower gender equality since such a presence does not have a negative impact on financial performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

How do Family and Managerial Ownership Structure Effect Real Earnings Management?

M. Siraji, M. C. A. Nazar

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 50-58
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i730401

Despite several works on corporate governance examine the ownership structure on earnings management, the empirical research on Real Earnings Management (REM) is limited. Thus, the main purpose of the research is to examine the effect of family and managerial ownership on real earnings management of selected non-financial listed companies at Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE) in Sri Lanka. The researchers use quantitative approach to address this current issue, and the data were collected using a sample of 206 firms listed at the CSE during the highest market capitalization period from 2015/2016 to 2019/2020, and eliminated the companies listed in the industry of bank, finance and insurance because the companies are governing by rules and regulation. The study found that family and managerial ownership play a prominent role and negatively related with real earning management activity. The finding of the study contributes to knowledge in earnings management of agency theory literature in developing economies, and help the investors, supplier auditors and policy makers for their decision-making activities by detecting the real earning management in different ownership structure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Competitive Strategic Responses on Performance of Fast-moving Consumer Goods Manufacturing Firms in Nairobi County, Kenya

George Okumu, Paul Kariuki

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 59-71
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i730402

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of competitive strategic responses on performance of fast moving consumer goods manufacturing firms in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study employed descriptive research design. The target population was 258 managers of these firms; from where a sample size of 157 respondents was obtained. Data was gathered using a semi structured questionnaire, administered using drop and pick method. This data was analyse using both qualitative and quantitative approaches where descriptive and inferential statistics were obtained. The study revealed that, each of competitive strategic responses; prospector strategy (p =0.047; β =.159), defender strategy (p =0.022; β =.135), analyzer strategy (p =0.013; β =.224) and reactor strategy (p < 0.01; β = .299) has a significant positive influence on performance of fast-moving consumer goods manufacturing firms in Nairobi County. These strategic responses account for 29.82% of change in performance of FMCG manufacturing firm in Nairobi County.

Open Access Original Research Article

Customer Attitude towards the Purchase Behavior of Green Apparel Products Consumers; with Special Reference to the Sri Lankan Government University Students

M. M. N. N. Herath, S. M. A. K. Samarakoon

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 72-80
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i730403

Aims: People are steadily more attentive to unsustainable consumption patterns due to severe environmental issues in the world. The study examines the factors that may affect the attitude towards green apparel products with particular reference to Sri Lankan university students’ families and analyze the attitude that affects green apparel products' purchasing behavior.

Methodology: Three hundred and eighty complete questionnaires were used to analyze the study. Descriptive statistics and simple and multiple regression analysis utilized for data analysis of the study. Three independent variables, namely environmental apparel knowledge, environmental consumer beliefs, and subjective norms, except the environmental apparel knowledge, shows a positive significant effect on green products' attitudes.

Results and Conclusions: Moreover, the study shows a positive impact on the attitude to purchase green apparel products. Producers should consider changes in the unsustainable consumption pattern of the young generation.

Open Access Original Research Article

How Good Government Governance Affect the Economic Growth? An Investigation on Selected Country around the World

Syaharani Noer Fathia

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 93-98
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i730405

Good governance has become an important factor in economic growth. Good governance will become one of the UN's Millennium Development Goals. This study aims to show whether indicators of good government governance can affect the economic growth of a country so that the country can control economic growth through its governance. The Economic Growth and The governance indicators which drawn by Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2015-2019. The study covered 73 countries and it adopted the panel data framework the fixed effect, the random effect and the maximum likelihood estimation techniques for the analyses. The results shows that the voice and accountability have negative effect. Variable government effectiveness and rule of law have positive effect. Meanwhile, the political stability, regulatory quality, and control of corruption variables had no effect on economic growth. The study suggest for further researchers to provide other variables and expand research time.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Idea Generation on Business Growth: Evidence from Ibadan, Nigeria

Felix-Kingsley Obialo, Oluwatobi Janet Akinjo

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 99-114
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i730406

Idea generation (ideation) is at the root of creative and innovative endeavours as creative ideas lead to innovative outcomes. Identifying creative ideas is a function of knowledge and practice, whether individually, in a group or outside of those sources. Entrepreneurial practice reveals that ideas can be sourced from entrepreneurs, their employees and customers thus impacting business growth, especially in an emerging entrepreneurial society like Nigeria. This study aimed to reveal how three different sources of idea generation influence business growth in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The survey purposively sampled 195 entrepreneurs, 71 males (36%) and 124 females (64%), judged to engage in creative businesses. The age range is as follows: 20-25 years (14), 26-30 years (69), 31-35 years (52), 41-45 years (18), 46-50 years (4) and 51 years and above (3). Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Results revealed a significant number of the sample agreeing that there is a significant influence between individual, corporate and customer-centred ideation on business growth of the sampled entrepreneurs and consequently seek ideas from these sources. This study suggests the creation of awareness of the import of ideational skills among current and budding entrepreneurs and their employees through training to engender continuous creative and innovative growth in Nigerian businesses. Government and policy makers are to provide incentives and policies for business growth around the power of ideation. Limitations are also discussed.