Open Access Case study

Forecast Methods and Periodic Review Inventory Model for Supply Planning to Reduce Food Waste

Leslie-Noelia Ceballos-Palomares, Andrés-Benjamín Nava-Jiménez, Santiago-Omar Caballero-Morales, Patricia Cano-Olivos

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 24-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i530378

Food waste is an important economic and resource problem in all countries around the world.  Particularly, the restaurant sector highly contributes to food waste and limited efforts or studies have been performed to overcome this problem. In this context, the present study addresses an alternative to improve the supply planning for perishable products in the restaurant sector through the application of specific forecasting methods and a stochastic inventory control model. For this purpose, a real enterprise within this economic sector was considered. Our findings support that monthly forecasts can be more appropriate for accurate demand estimation and supply planning of perishable products, which is important to reduce unnecessary products. Also, the periodic review inventory control model can lead to a more appropriate supply scheme to reduce the waste of surplus food. These findings and the proposed techniques can be used for other economic entities to reduce product waste due to poor supply planning.

Open Access Policy Article

Entrepreneurship Factors Contributing to Youth Employment in the EAC Countries Data and Policy Analysis

Semboja Haji Hatibu, Hafidh Ali Hafidh

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 66-83
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i530382

This policy research paper analyses entrepreneurship factors contributing to youth unemployment and also provides working recommendations for engagement on youth employment through entrepreneurship in the EAC Countries. The data and policy analysis are based on the theory of 4Es as propounded by ILO and Youth Employment Network literature. The literature reviews, field research survey, focus group discussion, combined observational and consultations with key informants were research methods used in collecting secondary and primary data.  Data analysis used non-parametric methods, mainly frequency and cross tabulations.

The paper finds that entrepreneurship factors such as inadequate innovative skills; limited entrepreneurship knowledge, education and training skills; communication skills barriers; limited entrepreneurship experience; and existence of informal sector and entrepreneurship barriers contribute highly to youth unemployment in most of the EAC countries.

The paper recommends for improved entrepreneurship conditions and relevant implementation strategies include need to ensure adequate innovative skills; enhance entrepreneurship knowledge, education and training; informal employment in both formal and informal sectors improved; remove communication skill barriers; instil positive opportunity perception and ensure adequate access of entrepreneurship experience for optimal youth employment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Digital Banking Strategy and Financial Inclusion among Commercial Banks in Kajiado County. A Case of Kenya Commercial Bank in Kajiado County, Kenya

Johnstone Muli Makau, Clement O. Olando

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i530376

Despite the expansive infrastructure of commercial banking in Kenya, a large percentage of the country’s population is excluded from access to formal banking services/products. Further, there is insufficiency of credible information on the manner that digital banking strategies relates to inclusion on access to financial services. Accordingly, this study was in search of bridging the gap with the objective of evaluating the effects of the digital banking strategy on financial inclusion midst commercial banks in Kajiado County (a case of Kenya commercial bank in Kajiado county). This research utilised quantitative methods and espoused descriptive research design. It regarded the 323 Kenya commercial banks outlets (branches and bank agents) in Kajiado County for its target population and obtained a sample size of 179 respondents. A closed-ended questionnaire was administered using drop and pick approach, was developed for gathering data to be acquired from primary sources. This research adopted quantitative analysis approach to yield descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The study concludes that at 5% error level, digital banking channels, digital financial infrastructure, convenience of digital financial services, have a statistical positive significant effect on financial inclusion among commercial banks in Kajiado county while digital service offering has a statistically insignificant effect on financial inclusion among commercial banks in Kajiado county. The study recommends that the commercial banks in Kajiado should, provide digital banking services to areas that are not easily accessible, acquire adequate infrastructure facilities and adopt efficient technology, offer simple, cost effective and secure services to their customers and provide wide variety of digital service.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Agricultural R&D on Sectoral Economic Growth

Lawrence Ouru, Naftaly Mose

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 41-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i530379

Public and private investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) creates preconditions for the implementation of more advanced and better technologies. It enables the introduction of new production processes and products which can result in higher earnings and potential sectoral economic growth in Agriculture. Despite the fact that accelerated agricultural research and development is a catalyst for the beginning of the long-run economic activity, its importance is not widely investigated at regional levels. The East Africa economies have defined strategies that view innovation as an essential element in stimulating growth and job creation. The goal of this study is to establish the role of agricultural R&D in fostering sectoral economic growth of East Africa states. The data used in this research were panel data of the East Africa Countries for the period from 2001 to 2015. The result showed that agricultural sector R&D is important factor in explaining sectoral economic growth in East Africa. Therefore, only innovation through increasing Agricultural R&D expenditure and strengthening institutions can sufficiently drive sustainable sectoral output growth and development in East Africa economies. Thus, East Africa nations need to strengthen and build their agricultural research and development capacity while aligning of policies and procedures of research organizations to achieve sustainable sectoral economic growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Work Socialization and Workplace Conflict in Major Oil Companies in Nigeria

Uranta, Raphael Sotonye, I. Zeb-Obipi, Kaanakia T. Konya

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 47-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i530380

This study investigated the relationship between work socialization and workplace conflict in major oil companies in Nigeria. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey in its investigation of the variables. Primary data was generated through the self-administered questionnaire. The population for the study was two hundred and fifty-three (253) employees of seven (7) selected manufacturing companies in Port Harcourt. A total of 7 major multinational oil companies were investigated. 35 administrative management staff were sampled using the stratified sampling technique. The spearman correlation statistic was used in testing the hypotheses formulated. The reliability of the instrument was achieved by the use of the Cronbach Alpha coefficient with all the items scoring above 0.70. The hypotheses were tested using the Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 23.0. The tests were carried out at a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 level of significance. Results from analysis of data revealed that socialization had both significant and negative influence on interpersonal, intrapersonal, inter-group and intra-group conflicts. The study recommends that socialization should be part and parcel of organizational fabric to attain great heights in terms of workforce cooperation which eliminates workplace conflict; and multinational oil companies should develop means to have a well-defined employee-oriented culture as this will boost socio-cultural diversity management within the employees and as such lead to constructive workplace conflict and harmony.

Open Access Original Research Article

Activity-determined Steps on the Growth of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) at the Country Level: Taiwan’s Empirical Evidence

Wu-Jang Huang

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 58-65
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i530381

Taiwan’s atmospheric CO2 concentration is half in compliance on the formation of a environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), and the major contributor of direct CO2 emissions in Taiwan is from the power generation sector using coal and natural gas as fuel. Atmospheric CO2 concentration has been found to have the linear increment with stepwise fluctuations every five years during the period 2001-2018. Activity-determined steps were proposed noting that there is a proportion process for the increase of CO2 coming directly from the emission source of power plants and the source from the marginal sea sink to atmosphere sink due to memory delay-releasing. The alternative occurring events of EI Nino and La Nina in the West-Pacific region exactly match the fluctuations every five years, and the difference between the monitored atmospheric CO2 concentration with an empirical equation of calculated atmospheric CO2 concentration from the electricity structure in a single country level is a new indictor for the occurrences of EI Nino and La Nina phenomena in this region. Results also showed that the atmospheric CO2 concentration in Taiwan for the year 2035 is predicted to be as high as 430 ppm, due to a 50% natural gas energy policy. Our study provides a causal explanation for why atmospheric CO2 concentration has a linear increase shape with stepwise fluctuations for a single country. Our study has also proved that the linear increment with stepwise fluctuations also exhibits a EKC pattern.

Open Access Original Research Article

East African Community Regional Integration: Private Investment Implications

Naftaly Mose, Irene Keino, G. Yoganandan, Oladipo Olaniyan, Thabani Nyoni

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 84-89
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i530383

The objective of regional integration is the attainment of long-run economic growth for member countries. Private investments are decisive in attaining this objective, given the high dependence of EAC member states on state-owned investment. This has been attributed to the economic policies implemented by the government which favors state-owned investment. Further, existing empirical studies have been unable to determine whether trade liberalization advances or obstructs the accumulation of private and foreign investment. This study, assuming a random effect assumption, attempts to estimate the private investment model in EAC member states using the panel least squares technique for the period 1981-2015. The panel random effect regression result reveals that East African Community regional integration has had a significant impact on private investment build-up owing to the presence of third-country investors not currently established inside the EAC region. This study, therefore, recommends any policy agenda aimed at deepening regional integration through guaranteeing an appropriate business environment for enabling free movement of factors of production, population, and goods and services.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Foreign Aid on Economic Growth in Palestine: An Empirical Evidence

Nemer Badwan, Mohammed Atta

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 99-114
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i530384

This study examines the Impact of Foreign Aid on Economic Growth in Palestine by considering time series data of the last twenty years from (2000-2019). Foreign Aid's Impact on the Palestinian Economy explored with the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as the dependent variable against few selected independent variables such as Foreign Aid, Remittance, Investment, Labour Force and Lagged (GDP). This study used the Partial Adjustment Model to analyze the Impact of Foreign Aid on Economic Growth in Palestine and also applied the (Chow Test) to examine whether there was a Structural Breakthrough in the Palestinian Economy. The results indicate that Foreign Aid has a positive relationship with (GDP). However, the relationship is not significant since the higher volume of Foreign Aid used in Humanitarian and Social Welfare rather than Production Activities in the real sectors. (Chow Test) shows that the relationship between Foreign Aid (GDP) has not witnessed a Structural Breakthrough in the Palestinian Economy over the past twenty years. In light of these empirical results, we suggest that Government Policy-Makers and Decision-Makers allocate this Foreign Aid to Productive Sectors and Human Capital formation (HC) activities with a special focus on capital expenditures to achieve a high rate of the country's Economic Growth and Development and to meet the periodic plan and Long-Term Development goals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Online Trading Effectiveness in Nepal Share Market: Investors Awareness, Challenges and Managerial Solution

Niranjan Devkota, Ashish Budhathoki, Udaya Raj Paudel, Dipak Bahadur Adhikari, Udbodh Bhandari, Seeprata Parajuli

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 90-98
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i530385

Over a long time, the developing businesses have a brief history of victory all due to web. The online exchange forms of back comprehensive of buying and offering of bonds, stocks and other ventures, these all comes beneath online exchanging. Even though the world has already adopted the online trading, in Nepal it was recently introduced. This paper aims to explore online trading effectiveness in Nepal Share Market. Explanatory research design is applied in this study.  Both primary and secondary sources are used for collecting various data and information in the study. Quantitative technique is used for data analysis. Most of the respondents responded that they are involved and fully aware of the online trading. Majority of respondent agreed that they use both fundamental analysis as well as technical analysis for online trading. Similarly, most of the respondents expressed their opinion that technological factor caused problem on online trading.

Open Access Review Article

Covid-19 and the Educational Sector: Challenges and the Need for Inclusive Education in Nigeria

Ehigocho Peace Aimua, Joseph Paul

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 15-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i530377

The Covid-19 pandemic has become a global concern not only due to the high mortality rate attributed to the diseases, but also its adverse effect on the education sector and the economy at large. This qualitative paper therefore, examines how Covid-19 influence the Education Sector and the need for Inclusive Education in Nigeria. This paper reviewed literature that studied the relationship between Covid-19 and Education mostly in Nigeria. The findings show that inclusive education which involves granting equal opportunities to quality education for all students regardless of any challenges or socioeconomic background is not widely practice in Nigeria. This is because most of the gains accruing from inclusive education are not evenly spread across households and communities in Nigeria. Some of these benefits include: inclusive society through quality education that promote sense of belonging; improve platform of learning that reduces educational gap due to varying abilities; promotes cultural respect and opportunities to develop friendship. Some of the challenges to inclusive education include poor funding of the education sector; poverty level among Nigerians; poor electricity power supply; inability of parents to support home learning and inadequate and qualified personnel. This paper recommends school authorities to prioritise transformation from tradition to e-learning methods and enforce staff training on Information and Communication Technology.