Open Access Original Research Article

Gender and Household’s Spending on Education: An Empirical Evidence

Mirza Nazrana Beg, G. M. Bhat

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i230346

This paper examines whether the household's spending on education based on gender exhibits pro-boy bias or not. The study examines two potential mechanisms through which the gender-based difference in education spending can situate itself. Firstly, the association of gender with the enrolment of children in schools is tested. Secondly, the difference in expenditure on education of children, conditional on enrolling them in schools, is examined. The study used multiple regression analysis and chi-square test to achieve its objectives. The data for the study was collected through a structured interview schedule. The data for the study was collected at individual level. The results of the analysis reveal that, on the whole, gender has no association with the school enrolment. The study found that the annual household expenditure on boys is 7.35% higher than on girls.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trade Competitive Affair of Garment Products between Bangladesh and China: A Comparative Study

Kamrul Hasan, . Ma-Xiaoyun, Md. Rasel

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 14-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i230347

China and Bangladesh both are large garment producing countries and the garment industry occupies a strong and important position in their national economies. Bangladesh is not only a participating country in China's promotion of the “Belt and Road” initiative, but also an important country in the establishment of the China-India-Bangladesh-Myanmar Economic Corridor. This article makes a comparative analysis of the reasons for the gap in the competitiveness of the bilateral trade of garment products between the two countries and provides some realistic suggestions for the development of the garments product trade between the two countries. This paper has mainly used secondary information particularly the Chinese and Bangladeshi garment trade data derived from the United Nations Trade Database for the period of 2007-2018. For analyzing purpose, this paper has utilized “Harmonize commodity name and coding system” Classification standard (HCNCS), Measure market share (MS), Trade competitiveness index (TCI) and Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) index. The analysis shows that in terms of export market distribution, mostly the developed countries such as the European countries and United States are the main exporting countries of the Bangladeshi and Chinese garment products. The results further reveled that there is a certain gap in the scale of trade between Bangladesh and China in the garment industry, but the industrial trade structure is convergent. Finally, the authors identified that there is a fierce competition in the export of China-Bangladesh garments products in the international market. Policy recommendations have been suggested in order to improve the trade of garment products between Chin and Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studying the Impact of Total Quality Management on Entrepreneurial Organizations' Performance (Case Study: Insurance Companies in Iran)

Afsaneh Parsamand

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 24-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i230348

Purpose: Iran's situation in its competitive market and developing economy has encouraged entrepreneurial industrial organizations to improve the quality of their products and services so that they can enter the world's competitive market. To do so, they need to incorporate some effective means, one of which is total quality management. Total quality management is both a culture and a series of strategic principles to ensure consistent progress in entrepreneurial organizations.

Methods: This is a descriptive correlational study. The statistical population is 321 insurance employees in Tehran, Iran; 140 of these employees were randomly selected as a sample group by the use of the Morgan table. The Research tool is the Total Quality Management questionnaire that consists of the Organizational Performance Questionnaire by Kaplan and Norton (2001) and the Total Quality Management questionnaire by Wang et al (2012). Cranach's alpha method was applied to measure reliability, and the results were confirmed. To analyze the research data, inferential statistics were used including Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (K-S) for the normality of the data and the Regression method to test hypotheses. SPSS software was also used to analyze and process the research data.

Conclusion: results indicate that Total Quality Management has a significant influence on organizations' performance including the performance of financial sections, organizations' customers, the internal process, and organizations' learning and progress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Academic Fraud in Online System during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from Lampung - Indonesia

Fajar Purwatmiasih, . Sudrajat, Reni Oktavia

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 34-52
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i230349

This study aims to find indications of academic fraud in the implementation of final semester assessment online from the perspective of diamond fraud theory consisting of four dimensions; pressure, opportunity, rationalization, and capability. This quantitative study with a questionnaire created with Microsoft Form to collect the required data. This research was conducted in Lampung Tengah on December 14, 2020, from 07.30 to 15.00 WIB using the Microsoft Form questionnaire. The number of samples in this study was 81. Respondents in this study were 3 vocational high school students in Lampung Tengah Regency who participated in the final semester assessment online. The data obtained is processed using the line analysis method with Smart PLS 3.3.2 software. The results showed that pressures and opportunities have no significant effect on academic cheating in the implementation of final semester assessment online. While rationalization and positive ability have a significant effect on academic cheating in the assessment of the final semester online. In addition to the impact of academic fraud, the results of this study provide solutions to reduce the occurrence of academic fraud in Vocational High School students conducted online.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Consumers’ Green Purchase Intension a Study of Pakistani Consumers

Shahid Sherwani, Mariam Sherwani, Zeeshan Iqbal, Noor Ul Ain, Aqsa Ashraf Alvi

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 53-68
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i230350

The main goal of this article is to find the potential positive relationships among constructs (environmental knowledge, environmental concern, supposed product price, quality of green products and environmental attitude) to illuminate consumer preference about green brands. The study applies five constructs to develop an integrated model to enhance green purchase intentions. In addition, this research employs an empirical study by means of the questionnaire survey method to verify the hypotheses and to explore its managerial implications. The empirical results show that environmental concern, environmental knowledge, and supposed product price & quality of green products has statistically significant and positive influence on environmental attitude and purchase preferences for green products of consumer. Likewise, a purchaser’s environmental attitudes also had statistically notable and substantial influence on consumer green purchase intentions. If consumers' have competitive and high deliberations over the price, quality, environmental concerns, and environmental knowledge of green products, it influencially implies to their purchase intentions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Strategic Determinants on Implementation of County Annual Development Plans among County Governments in Kenya. A Case of Selected Kenyan Counties

Ali Hassan Abdi, Mary Mbithi, Moses Kithinji

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 69-84
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i230351

Kenya devolved governance, which is in massive transition, has devoted substantial efforts in developing strategic county annual development plans. However, the county governments are paying less attention on implementation of these viable plans. Despite a considerable research on implementation of strategic plans, the Kenya county government lack substantial empirical literature to guide in establishing strategic determinants informing implementation their plans among Kenya counties. So immediate analysis was appropriate for assessing these strategic determinants, hence this study. This study used descriptive survey research design with it is target population being the 531 officers actively involved in implementation of county annual development plans and particularly; county executive officers, administrators, and members of county assemblies from Kajiado Kiambu, Machakos and Nairobi counties. A sample size of 228 respondents was determined using Yamane formula; who were selected using stratified proportionate random sampling. The data was collected using questionnaire pre-tested for reliability and validity. Quantitative technique was exploited to yield descriptive statistics while ordinal logistics regressions was employed in assessing the relationships between strategic determinants and plans’ implementation. The study concludes that at 0.05 level of significance, there is a statistically significant effect of each of; strategic leadership characteristics, organizational resources, organizational culture and organizational structure on implementation of county annual development plans among County Governments in Kenya. The study recommends for the counties to review strategic leadership policies manage their organizational resources effectively, rethink their organizational cultures, and energise their organizational structures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Public Debt on Public Investment in Nigeria: 1985-2018

Chukwu, Kenechukwu Origin, Ogbonnaya-Udo, Nneka, Chimarume Blessing Ubah

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 98-114
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i230353

This study examined the effect of Nigeria public debt on public investment from 1985-2018. Data for the analysis was obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical bulletin and the study chooses Nigeria as its sample. ARDL Auto-regressive Distributed lag models was used to test the effect of the independent variables (Public Debt, Budget Deficit, Debt Servicing, Public Debt to GDP Ratio) on the dependent variable (Public Investment). The cointegration test found the existence of long-run relationship among the investigated variables. The short run result shows that public debt has insignificant effect on public investment in Nigeria. The study therefore recommends among others that Federal government should be fiscal responsible by channeling borrowed funds to investments that will bring growth in the economy. Government should tackle waste and corruption by making sure that funds borrowed and allocated for investment should be transparently and judiciously utilized in the provision of infrastructure. Debts should be taken only when necessary and should be for investment and not for payment of salaries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Testing the Efficiency of Capital Structure and Assets Structure in Bank

Ahmad Roziq, Ayang Marizca, Alwan Sri Kustono

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 115-122
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i230354

This study aims to examine and analyze the effect of capital and asset structure on the risk of financing and profitability of Islamic banks in Indonesia. This type of research is explanatory research, namely research that explains the relationship of the influence of the independent variable on the influence of the dependent variable through a hypothesis test using path analysis. The data used in this study is secondary data on capital structure, asset structure, risk, and profitability in Islamic banks for the 2014-2018 period. The data collection method used in this research is the documentation method. The results of the study conclude that capital structure has a significant effect on risk but does not have a significant effect on profitability, asset structure has no significant effect on risk and profitability and risk has a significant effect on profitability. The results of analysis and discussion can be advised the management of Islamic banks to improve the performance of Islamic banks, so the management of Islamic banks must be able to establish an efficient capital structure, namely by using temporary syirkah funds that use an efficient profit-sharing system and loans with the wadiah system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stock Price Volatility Modelling with Regimes in Conditional Mean and Variance

Abdulganiyu Salami, Timilehin Olasehinde

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 123-131
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i230355

This study examined the presence and nature of volatility in the Nigerian Stock market. Through a graphical presentation of the Nigerian stock prices, it was observed that there exist two regimes of volatility clustering between the periods of 1985M6 to 1999M12 and 2000M1 to 2018M6. Employing a regime covariate autoregressive (AR-X) with an exponential GARCH model, that allows for a shift in intercept, it was found that the second regime, 2000 M1 to 2018 M6, is more volatile, and that modelling of Nigerian stock market requires a technique that considers more than one regime of volatility clustering. Consequently, the study recommends that local and foreign investors take into consideration the high volatility of the recent Nigerian stock prices in making their investment decision and that policymakers take cognizance of the volatility in designing macroeconomic policies.

Open Access Review Article

Budget Deficits and Fiscal Adjustments under Fragmented Decision Making: New Evidence on an Old Discussion

Panagiotis Palaios

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 85-97
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2021/v21i230352

The purpose of this paper is to present the existing literature of political explanations for budget deficits and fiscal adjustments. The literature is distinguished initially in two broad categories, namely the effects of conflicts among agents with heterogeneous preferences and institutional effects. At the next stage the category of conflicts among agents is further distinguished in two approaches, namely political stability approach and weak government approach. The existing literature confirms that political instability leads to the strategic use of debt and therefore to higher fiscal deficits. Institutions are proved to contribute positively to the success of fiscal adjustments. However, interest groups with political power and the risk aversion character of politicians imply that fiscal adjustment is usually delayed and more costly.