Open Access Case study

The Importance and Level of Adaptation of STP Strategies for Growth in Foreign Markets: In the Case of Soft Drinks Company

Md. Mahathy Hasan Jewel, Kh Khaled Kalam

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 13-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2020/v19i230299

STP denotes Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning. This study's main purpose is to demonstrate the STP concept's understanding and its importance in the success or failure of a Soft Drinks company. Examines the competitive role of Soft Drinks in the global soft beverage industry. Since they operate in over 200 countries, they have a simple choice as to whether their products are standardized worldwide and whether they can benefit from economies of magnitude and adapt their products to a given market. Many literature has been written about external and sometimes uncontrollable factors that could influence a plan to position companies. This particular report has been developed with two major sections. The study covered and explained STP's concept and why STP is essential in the international business area in the first segment. In the second segment, the report covered the issue of changing and adapting the STP concept of Soft Drinks in the global market and how the companies formulate new strategies in place of their original one according to the international market's demand and volatility. Besides, this segment covered those companies' main steps to capture local business and create and enhance their brand value by securing profit margins by maintaining productivity. Based on the understanding gathered from this study, the report finally explored the practices of Soft Drinks Company in regards to this particular study area and dug out the reasons for changing and adapting its SPT strategy in the international marketplace and the underlying impact of this adaptation practices focusing on the distribution channel of Soft Drinks in overseas localized markets. These specific factors help Soft Drinks to established financial growth in the global market. The study's main limitation is the lack of enough analysis for Soft Drinks as STP analysis only a small part of the strategical analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Macroeconomic Variables on Bank Credit in Saudi Arabia: An ARDL Bounds Testing Approach to Cointegration

Mohamed Sharif Bashir, Ahmed Abdu Allah Ibrahim

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2020/v19i230298

The main objective of the paper is to examine the relationship between bank credit and the major macroeconomic variables of Saudi Arabia during the period from 1993 to 2019. An autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) method was employed to estimate the short-run and long-run effects of the major macroeconomic variables on bank credit. The study revealed that the real exchange rate and money supply have positive long-run effects on bank credit compared to the negative effects of inflation on bank credit. Gross domestic product (GDP) has a negative effect on total bank credit, which is in conflict with the Keynesian view. In the short run, the effect of GDP on bank credit is negative, whereas inflation has a positive influence on bank credit. Based on the findings, the study suggests some expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, such as raising asset prices and lowering the costs of borrowing, increasing spending and cutting taxes to produce budget deficits for stabilizing the financial system and increasing national income to promote sustainable and stable growth in bank credit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption of Digital Literacy Strategy on Academic Progress of Private University Education in Kenya: A Survey of Umma University, Garissa Campus

Tom Ongesa Nyamboga, Hussein Abdi Ali

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 24-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2020/v19i230300

The global higher education landscape has dramatically changed over the last couple of months as a result of the spread of coronavirus. The motion of learners and teachers has been reduced drastically due to the outspread the pandemic. In Kenya, the close up of universities by the government to prevent the spread of this disease has been a big blow to education sector. Resultantly, the government encouraged university managements to embrace digital literacy strategy through virtual academic platforms. The success of this strategy has not been uniform to all universities in Kenya. Academic programs in most universities have stagnated following the close up. This study was purposely conducted to assess the adoption of COVID-19 digital literacy strategy on academic progress of private university education in Kenya.  The objective of this study was to find out the effects of e-learning mode of delivery on academic progress of private university education in Kenya. This research utilized a descriptive research design to collect data in order to test the research questions and hypothesis about the relationship between the study variables. The target population of the study comprised all 207 students in Umma University in Garissa Campus. A sample size of 137 respondents was then chosen using systematic sampling. Primary data was collected by use of structured self-administered questionnaires phrased on a 5 likert scale. Data collected was analyzed according to the objectives of the study. SPSS version 24 was used to conduct both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis. Analysis of Variance and Linear Regression analysis were conducted to establish the correlation between the study’s variables. The hypothesis of this study was tested at a confidence level of 0.05. The study established a positive significant relationship between e-learning and academic progress of university education. The findings of this study will guide management of universities to formulate strategies that would strengthen virtual learning in all centers of higher learning. The study recommends adoption of digital literacy programs by all universities in order to ensure continuity of learning with or without a pandemic in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Environmental Protection Cost on Return on Equity of Petroleum Marketing Companies in Nigeria?

Abdulsalam Nasiru, Kaoje, Sani, Idris, Mohammed Lawal, Danrimi, Shafiu Abubakar Kurfi, Aminu, Abubakar

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 48-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2020/v19i230302

This paper evaluates the effect of environmental protection cost on return on equity of petroleum marketing companies in Nigeria. A panel data spanning a period of fifteen years from 2004-2018 was used, which was sourced from Nigerian Stock Exchange Factbook and annual account and report of twelve (12) petroleum  marketing companies in Nigeria. Regression was used in testing the hypothesis of the paper. The paper found that environmental protection cost has positive and significant effect on return on asset of petroleum marketing companies in Nigeria. Therefore, the paper recommends that management of petroleum marketing companies in Nigeria should increase their participation on Environmental protection and Environmental remediation and pollution control to their host communities in order to maximized profitability most especially the return on asset of the sampled petroleum marketing companies in Nigeria.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19 and Supply Chain Disruption: A Conceptual Review

Akintokunbo, Oluwarotimi Odunayo, Adim, Chidiebere Victor

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 40-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2020/v19i230301

COVID-19 crisis has created a new set of challenges to which supply chain managers must respond. As demand for home delivery services surge, supply chains have to adapt their supply replenishment processes, their order fulfilment processes and hire new employees to be trained in the specifics of order picking and home delivery. The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a significant health risk, and countries around the world have responded with partial shutdowns of their economies to slow the pace of infections. These measures have reportedly led to massive disruptions in the global and domestic supply chains. The findings in extant literature show that supply chains during COVID-19 are more fragile for products that travel long distances before reaching their final point of sale. Our work highlights how online data can be used in conjunction with other data-sets for real-time policymaking. This paper conceptually examines the impact of COVID-19 on supply chain disruption and response strategies adopted.