Open Access Original Research Article

Total Factor Productivity and Environmental Efficiency of the Most Important Cereals Crops in Egypt

Ahmed A. El-Rasoul, Alaa M. Ramadan, E. El-Seify, Sameh M. Shehab

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2020/v15i430218

Purpose of the Study: Egyptian agriculture suffers from many problems related to the use of available economic resources, the most important of which is lack of optimal utilization of resources, wasteful use of agricultural production inputs, reduced efficiency of irrigation water use, and the fertility of agricultural lands are deteriorating, in addition to increasing rates of encroachments on agricultural lands and shifting it from agricultural use to other non-agricultural uses, which limits the agricultural sector ability to achieve high growth rates, especially with the increasing global production of biofuels from crops that individuals consume as food, including wheat and corn, which constitutes an explicit threat to Egyptian food and national security.

Objectives: The research aimed to:

  1. Estimate the changes in the sources and components of the total productivity of the factors for the main cereal crops in Egypt in the presence and absence of carbon dioxide emissions,
  2. Environmental impact assessment of changes in the productivity of these crops.

Methods: The study applied analytical approaches to measure changes in productivity, as parameter analysis methods are used as methods of the aggregate production function, and non-parameterized methods of estimation, in addition to (Malmquist, 1953) which is one of the most important indicators of measurement changes in productivity and relies on a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure efficiency and changes in TFP productivity and identify the sources of changes in productivity through changes in technical competence and technological change, as the two most important components of the change in total productivity.

Results: Wheat Crop: Wheat crop by estimating the change in the different efficiencies of the wheat crop with co2 emissions, it was clear that a decrease in technological change (TC) during the study period, and thus a decrease in the average change in the total factor productivity (TFP), while without co2 emissions effect, the average change in the total factor productivity of (TFPc) indicates an increase in the actual wheat efficiency which is low due to the environmental impact of the emissions.

Rice Crop: Rice crop by estimating the change in the different efficiencies of the rice crop with co2 emissions, it became clear that a decrease in the average technological change (TC), thus increasing the average change in the total factor productivity of the (TFP), whereas, without co2 emissions, it was found that the average change in the total factor productivity of the (TFPc) for the study areas was higher.

Summer Maize Crop: It was clear that the average technological change (TC) for the summer maize crop with co2 emissions, decreased during the study period, and therefore a decrease in the average change in the total factor productivity of the (TFP), but without co2, an increase in the annual average of the change in technical efficiency (TEC), and a decrease in the average technological change (TC), i.e. in the use of technology, and an increase in the average change in the total factor productivity (TFPc).

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Whistleblowing Intention: Case Study on the Implementation of Village Funds

Ulin Nuha Alfani, Fajar Gustiawaty Dewi, Susi Sarumpaet

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 18-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2020/v15i430219

This study aims to analyze the factors that influence the individual's intention to do whistle blowing. This study uses a questionnaire to gather the information needed. The variables used in this study are Subjective Norms, Attitudes Towards Behavior, Perceptions About Behavioral Control, Locus of Control, and Reward as independent variables and Intentions as dependent variables.

The total samples in this study were 112 samples and using random sampling techniques in data collection. Respondents in this study were the Village Consultative Body in 7 Sub-districts in South Lampung District. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Square (PLS). The Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique was chosen because this tool is widely used to estimate the path model with a small sample size [1] then it is used for a very complex model (consisting of many latent variables and manifests) without problems [2].

The results of this study indicate that the subjective norm, attitudes toward behavior and the reward variable does not affect the individual's intention to do whistle blowing. Then, the behavioral control and locus of control variables indicate that the two variables affect the individual's intention to do whistleblowing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Passenger Satisfaction with the Quality of Service Offered at the Bandaranaike International Airport (BIA)

D. G. E. K. P. K. Dambagolla, E. A. G. Sumanasiri

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 30-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2020/v15i430220

Aim: Bandaranaike International Airport (BIA) is important in the development of the Sri Lankan economy. To remain competitive in the service sector it is essential to focus more on improving service quality as it directly creates greater customer satisfaction. In respect of international airports satisfied passengers often revisit a destination thus increasing micro and macro level income and profitability. Hence, satisfied and loyal passengers are an important factor in remaining competitive among international airports. Although there is ample research that explores service quality and passenger satisfaction with airports, research is sparse in regard to Sri Lanka. Hence, the aim of this study is to identify the most important service quality dimensions influencing passenger satisfaction at BIA and to examine the relationship between each SERVQUAL dimension on passenger satisfaction.

Place and Duration of Study: Bandaranaike International Airport (BIA) between April to July 2019.

Methodology: The sample for this study consisted of 150 passengers at BIA and a five-point Likert scale questionnaire was developed for this study based on the SERVQUAL model to analyse the impact of the five dimensions (reliability responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangibility) of service quality at BIA. A quantitative approach was used and questionnaires were distributed by hand as well as by electronically using Facebook, Messenger, WhatsApp, Viber and Email. The data was analysed using SPSS Version 23.0.

Results: The regression model confirmed that tangibility, assurance and empathy contributed to passenger satisfaction. The findings of this study could be used by passengers, researchers, service providers, civil aviation authorities and other decision makers for their decision-making purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Rate of Change in the Consumption of Various Sources of Energy in Nepal

Arjun Kumar Dahal

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 46-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2020/v15i430221

The present study examines the rate of change of various sources of energy like biomass, coal, petroleum products, electricity and renewable sources of energy in Nepal by employing secondary data collected from various published resources. It also aims to measure the consistency or variability in the consumed quantity of various sources of energy during the period of 20 years, from 1998/99 to 2017/2018. Simple statistical tools and methods like ratio, percentage, mean, range, coefficient of range, standard deviation and coefficient of variation are used to describe and explore the viability of consumption. Descriptive and exploratory research designs were used in this study. The condition of energy consumption during the study period is found an increasing trend. The consumption of electricity is found more consistent or stable than other sources of energy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Off-farm Income on Poverty and Food Security Status of Farmers in Paikoro Area of Niger State, Nigeria

E. S. Yisa, A. Adewumi, C. O. Adebayo, I. I. Opuama

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 56-65
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2020/v15i430223

This study determined the effects of off-farm income on poverty and food security status of farmers in Paikoro Local Government area of Niger state, Nigeria. A total of 150 farmers were selected randomly from six wards across the Local Government Area. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used to elicit primary data from the farmers for the study. Descriptive statistics, Foster-Greer-Thorbeck (FGT) model, Logit regression and Tobit regression models were used for data analysis. Results showed that the mean age of the farmers was 42 years, majority (89.33%) were male while 90.67% were married and 63% had no formal education. The most prevailing off-farm enterprise was trading (74%). The poverty status of the respondents were classified under poor and non-poor with poverty incidence of 41.33% for the poor, poverty gap and severity indices were 37.63% and 14.16% respectively. Logit regression showed membership of association, household size, gender, food expenses, years in formal education, and off-farm income were significant at p=0.01, p=0.01, p=0.05, p=0.05, p=0.05, p=0.05 respectively. The food security status analysis revealed that 67% of the farmers were food secure while 33% were food insecure. Tobit regression results showed household size, farming experience, size of farm and off-farm income at p=0.01 respectively were significant determinants of food security. It was concluded that off-farm income had significant positive effect on the poverty and food security status of the farmers. However, poverty and food insecurity still remain major issues in the area that cannot be over-looked, and as such, efforts should be made to ensure that farmers are encouraged and empowered to engage in profitable off-farm activities while the government should also make policies that will favour their off-farm enterprises.

Open Access Original Research Article

Net Returns Maximizing Combination of Arable Crops among Smallholder Farmers in Kaiama Agricultural Zone of Kwara State, Nigeria

A. Adewumi, L. Tanko, F. D. Ibrahim, E. S. Yisa

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 66-74
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2020/v15i430225

The study developed an optimal arable crop combination plans that would maximize the net returns of the smallholder farmers in Kaiama agricultural zone of Kwara State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 40 smallholder farmers. Interview schedule was used to obtain cross-sectional data from the farmers. Descriptive statistics, farm budgeting technique and linear programming model were used to analyse the data obtained. The results of the analysis showed that mixed crop enterprises were more profitable than sole crop enterprises. The LP result revealed that 1.75 ha of maize/cowpea, 1.64 ha of maize/soybean, 1.40 ha of maize/yam and 0.70 ha of sorghum/soybean were prescribed as solutions to maximize net returns in the optimal plan. The optimal net return was $937.98 which is 52.23% higher than the existing plan. Maize enterprise had the highest marginal opportunity cost while yam had the least. However, Capital and labour constituted the limiting resources in the optimal plan. It was concluded that the smallholder farmers have the potential to maximize net returns as resources were not optimally allocated in the existing plan for arable crop activities. Farmers should therefore adopt the optimum farm plans as prescribed in the LP solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interest Rates and Foreign Investor Activity in Kenya: Evidence from Nairobi Securities Exchange

Loice Koskei

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 75-82
DOI: 10.9734/ajeba/2020/v15i430235

Interest rates play a key role in attracting foreign investor activity in the country. This study investigated the effect of interest rates on foreign investor activity at Nairobi Securities Exchange in Kenya. Monthly data was collected from Nairobi Securities Exchange, Central Bank of Kenya and Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Time series data for eleven year period spanning from January 2009 to December 2019 was used.  The multiple regression model results disclosed that interest rates as measured by lending rate had a positive and statistically significant effect on foreign investor. Inflation rate results had a negatively but statistically significant effect on foreign investor. The results for exchange rate had a negative but statistically insignificant effect on foreign investor activity. The deposit rate results indicated a negative and statistically significant effect on foreign investor activity implying that commercial banks deposit rate has an effect on foreign investor activity. The results for 91-day treasury bills specified a positive and non-statistically insignificant relationship with foreign investor activity pointing that for 91- day treasury bills do not affect the foreign investor activity at Nairobi securities exchange in Kenya.