Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Conventional and Shari´ah - Compliant Banks: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

Ghadeer M. Khartabiel, Tunku Salha Tunku Ahmad, Rosni Bakar

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/AJEBA/2018/43955

This study aims at examining the comparative performance of Islamic and conventional banks over the sample period from 2005 to 2016. The sample banks consist of a list of Islamic and conventional banks from twenty countries from Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Gulf region, and Europe. Banks performance is proxied by efficiency scores. The nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to estimate the banks' relative efficiency scores. Additionally, the paper applies the two-sample t-test to compare whether the performance averages of the two types of banks are significantly different in the pre, during, and post crisis of 2008.

Findings show that both Islamic and conventional banks appear to be on “average” technically inefficient. Inefficiencies are driven largely by the disproportionate size of operations. Poor management practices contribute partially to banks´ inefficiency. Surprisingly, Islamic banks seem to have on “average” a significantly better and less volatile efficiency performance than conventional banks in the pre, crisis, and post-crisis periods. They, therefore, show better chances to improve efficiency by shrinking down activities to control costs and applying suitable changes to determining an appropriate input-output combination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oil Companies Performance and Environmental Accounting Reporting in Nigeria

Umoren Adebimpe Otu, Akpan Moses Okon, Okafor Linus Nnanna

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEBA/2018/43106

This study was conducted to examine the nature of relationship existing between environmental accounting reporting and Oil companies’ performance in Nigeria. Eleven (11) quoted oil companies were randomly selected from the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The secondary data used were from the audited financial statements of the Oil companies. Environmental accounting reporting was measured by the costs of air pollution, water pollution, land degradation, staff welfare, community welfare, and litigations. The performance of the Oil companies was measured using return on capital employed (ROCE); net profit margin (NPM), divided per share (DPS) and earnings per share (EPS). The statistics used in testing the hypothesis is multiple linear regression. The results of the analysis showed insignificant relationships between environmental accounting reporting and performance variables, that is, return on capital employed (P = 0.175), net profit margin (P = 0.95),, earnings per share (P = 0.423),  and dividend per share (P = 0.542). Based on the findings, it is therefore recommended that government should make environmental disclosure compulsory and also impose sanctions on the violation by any Oil company in Nigeria; compliance by the Oil companies should be taken seriously so that the environment will be safe for economic growth and development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Corporate Governance Mechanisms on Tax Aggressiveness of Quoted Manufacturing Firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange

Onyali Chidiebele Innocent, Okafor Tochukwu Gloria

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/AJEBA/2018/38594

Aim: The study examined the effect of corporate governance mechanisms on tax aggressiveness among selected manufacturing firms in Nigeria.

Study Design: Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Nigeria and the data used for the study were derived from the financial statements of Manufacturing companies listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) and the NSE fact book as at the end of the year, 2016. Forty-four (44) Listed Manufacturing Firms were used for the study based on the criteria that they had complete information on the variables of study, from 2005-2016 been the period covered by the study.

Methodology: The data in the study were obtained from the annual reports and accounts of the firms as well as the Nigerian Stock Exchange Fact Book. The data obtained were analyzed using the Ordinary Least Square technique with its Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE) Property.  In addition, a regression model was developed to test the combined effects of corporate governance measures on tax aggressiveness of the selected manufacturing firms and the analysis was performed via STATA 13.0. 

Results: The outcome of the analysis of data revealed that board size has no significant effect on tax aggressiveness while board diversity, independent director and proportion of non-executive directors to executive directors is having a significant impact on tax aggressiveness among quoted manufacturing firms in Nigeria.

Conclusion: The study concluded among others that quoted manufacturing firms in Nigeria should pay less attention to the size of their board, but rather focus on the quality and integrity of the members of the board.  Besides, SEC and CBN code of corporate governance provisions should be strictly adhered to, by firms which provide that a firm should have one (1) and two (2) independent directors respectively. This is necessitated as the presence of independent directors ensures the independence of the board.

Open Access Original Research Article

Macroeconomic Forces and Balance of Payment in Nigeria: The Triple Helix of Elasticity- Absorption- Monetary Approaches

A. Kola Adegoke, Yusuf Olatunji Oyedeko

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEBA/2018/43057

The study examines the effect of macroeconomic forces on balance of payment. Ex post-facto research was adopted and the sample of the study covers the period of thirty-one years spanning from 1986 to 2016. A secondary source of data was used and this was obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The data were analysed through Toda-Yamamoto causality test. The study reveals the mixed relationship between exchange rate, inflation rate, money supply and interest rate. The study also shows an interaction among elasticity, absorption and monetary approaches to determining the balance of payment position in Nigeria. The study concludes that government should encourage exportation and restrict importation of goods and services in the country as this will reduce dependency on foreign goods and service and improve the domestic value of naira in the country. In view of this, the study recommends that monetary policy made by Central Bank of Nigeria should not be tailored only to money supply but, also in ensuring higher output, stabilisation of inflation pressure, ensuring flexible interest rate and employment among others in the country so as to enhance the favourable balance of payment.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Workforce Diversity on Employee Performance (The Case of Ethio-Telecom South West Addis Ababa Zone)

Abdilgelil Asefa

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-27
DOI: 10.9734/AJEBA/2018/43760

The value of diversity at the workplace is becoming a key business consideration for most organizations. Close and continuous attention to the issues of workforce diversity is important because it can be one of the major sources of competitive advantage. However, there were limited research works was conducted on the topic area especially in the Ethiopian context and in Ethio-telecom. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of workforce diversity i.e. age, gender, ethnicity, education background, work experience and marital status on employee performance in the case of Ethio-telecom south-west Addis Ababa zone. The study reviews the theoretical and empirical literature and develops a conceptual framework. When we come to the methodology the study takes descriptive research design and used cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to the cluster size. The researchers are used Primary data for the study was collected from 74 (seventy-four) respondents through a structured questionnaire and analyzed it through descriptive and explanatory research design using software package for social science (SPSS). Statistical techniques such as mean, standard deviation, correlation, regression and analysis of variance were employed in data analysis and the finding shows that there is a positive relationship between all independent variables and dependent variable. Whereas, the only ethnicity has significant to explain employee performance by 28.7% while others are insignificant to predict employee performance. Based on the findings of the study the researcher forwards the following points as a recommendation, Thus, Ethio-telecom should understand how to manage the diverse workforce in ethnicity where it can increase the advantage of such diversity and Ethio-telecom should give a chance to employees to learn more skills through course and training so as to improve their performance.