Open Access Original Research Article

Customers and Employees Assessment of Corporate Branding Benefits

Martha Appiah, Ivy O. Asiedu, Prince Agbi, Stephen Acheampong

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEBA/2017/32648

Corporate branding has become an important tool employed by many industries in recent decades. It is described as the subliminal process by which industries use marketing strategies to attract customers to easily remember their products and services over competitors. A company’s ability to determine precisely the key elements that drives customers to their brand will help them to prioritize specific business operations. This study evaluated key branding elements and their impacts as perceived by customers and employees. A sample size of 300 respondents, comprising 50 employees and 250 customers of a local pharmaceutical firm was selected. Questionnaire was administered to the 300 respondents, which targeted three metrics (perception, behavior, and market trends) as means to evaluate branding effectiveness. The results showed that there was a relationship between corporate branding and customer’s pattern of purchase. Most of the employee respondents testified that the management of the company was fully committed to building the brand image of the company. In effect, all customer respondents believed that the company’s brand had some level of influence on them. Most of the customers felt they were emotionally attached to the company’s brand, which ultimately influenced the frequency in which they purchased from the company. The majority of customers switched to the company because of perceived loyalty and trust, but the customers that had the company as their first choice brand had no peculiar reasons. Moreover, employee’s perception of what drove customers (dominated by competitive pricing) to purchase their product was not consistent with the response of customers (dominated by product quality). In general, corporate branding is an important tool, eliciting customer’s loyalty and the frequency in which they purchase from a firm. However, the key branding elements were perceived differently by customers and employees.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Exports and Inflation in Kenya: An Aggregated Econometric Analysis

Evans Ovamba Kiganda, Nelson Obange, Scholastica Adhiambo

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJEBA/2017/33192

Aim: This paper tries to identify the relationship between exports and inflation in Kenya: An aggregated econometric analysis.

Study Design: The analysis is based on the demand pull theory of inflation and on applied correlation research design using monthly time series data from Central Bank of Kenya for the 132 months between January 2005 and December 2015.

Methodology: Vector autoregressive analytical techniques of Johansen cointegration, vector error correction, variance decomposition, impulse response and Granger causality are employed in order to comprehensively analyze the relationship between inflation and exports in Kenya.

Results: The results indicate that inflation has a significant positive long run relationship with total exports. This is a conclusion supported by variance decomposition and impulse analysis with a coefficient of 1.39 at 5% level of significance, implying that a percentage increase in total exports increases long-run inflation in Kenya by 1.39%. In the short run, past values of total exports influence inflation negatively and there is a unidirectional causality from total exports to inflation.

Conclusion: Total exports are found to affect inflation in Kenya critically; it is recommended that the government adopts trade policies targeting a reduction in total exports as they are likely to lower the shortage of these products in the domestic market, lowering thereby their prices and their contribution inflation in Kenya.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Probit Model Version of Water and Sanitation as Predictors of Child Diarrhoea in Ghana

Gloria Essilfie, Abigail Padi, John Awuah Addor

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEBA/2017/33225

Diarrhoea has been recognized as one of the causes of child mortality globally. As in other developing countries, diarrhoea incidence among children is worrisome as 13 percent of children in Ghana do suffer from such according to 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey report. Despite this knowledge about child diarrhoea, researchers passively discuss issues relating to child diarrhoea in Ghana.

The paper analyzes the effect of water and sanitation on diarrhoea incidence in the Ghanaian context using 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data set. The study employed the probit model in estimating the incidence of diarrhoea among Ghanaian children. Even though previous studies in Ghana on this issue showed that drinking improved water source was not associated with child diarrhoea incidence, the econometric analysis of 4925 households in Ghana showed that access to improved water and improved toilet facility reduces diarrhoea among children.

Recommendations that were offered included community based urban and rural sanitation and water project as well as educating mothers on the importance of using improved water source.

Open Access Original Research Article

Personal Tax Relief Schemes: Awareness and Usage among Personal Income Taxpayers within Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana

F. Y. Gbadago

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AJEBA/2017/32107

To lessen burdens caused by enforcement of tax laws and to ensure equal distribution of tax burdens, good tax systems grant individual personal income taxpayers (PIT) reduction(s) in their taxable income through personal income tax reliefs schemes (PTRS). The Ghanaian tax system is no exception to this. The usage however depends on the taxpayer’s awareness and willingness to adopt. This study therefore sought to ascertain the PTRS awareness and usage level and the factors that influence the PTRS usage in mitigating tax burdens among individual Ghanaian PIT within the Kumasi Metropolis. Also, this study sought to impale research interest in PTRS usage considering its effects on government tax revenue and disposable household and national incomes. The study used a survey research design with sets of structured questionnaires. The results of the study are based on responses from 210 PIT from Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana analyzed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. The results suggest that while there is fair level of PTRS awareness, PTRS usage remains very low among Ghanaian PIT from Kumasi Metropolis. The study also identified knowledge, awareness, challenges, and perception as statistically key factors that influence PTRS usage in mitigating tax burdens among individual PIT from Kumasi Metropolis. Consequently, this paper recommends that Ghana Revenue Authority and/or tax policy makers, social advocators and National Commission on Civic Education among others pay attention to these factors so as to step up interest in PTRS usage as means of mitigating tax burdens if voluntary tax compliance is to be encouraged.

Open Access Review Article

Macroeconomic Implications of the Degree of Openness in Developing Countries: The Experience in Nigeria

Miftahu Idris, Rosni Bakar

Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEBA/2017/33361

Nigeria is significantly blessed with abundant of human and natural resources that can meaningfully position the country in the international product market and consequently achieve considerable economic growth through trade. Similarly, degree of openness of an economy has the potentials to encourage sustainable growth and development through its impact in integrating global countries, and nurturing of innovative and broader markets for numerous countries within the global environment. Several scholarly contributions in the literature shows a divergent view on the relationship between country’s openness and growth. While some studies revealed a positive nexus, others shows a negative relationship. Therefore, further studies on this research domain remains incessant. It is in view of this background, that this study conceptually evaluates the effects of the degree of openness of the Nigerian economy and its macroeconomic implications on the desired level of growth. The study found that, despite the increased liberalisation and openness of the Nigerian economy to external trade, the contribution of country’s openness revealed an insignificant results, evidenced by lower growth rates and other macroeconomic disequilibrium. Meaning that, the enormous advantage of liberalisation and the benefit of economies of scale are yet to be maximised in the Nigerian economy. The result apparently is not amazing given the high rate of social and religious conflicts including the Niger Delta crisis, terrorist activities by the Boko Haram militants, high rate of kidnapping, and other communal clashes within the domestic economy. This undoubtedly has frightened many foreign investors resulting to lower economic growth rates; increased unemployment and poverty ratios, persistent increase in price among the locally-produced commodities, as well as the unstable exchange rate. Obviously, there is gain in external trade and hence, Nigeria should thoroughly designed appropriate policies to allow for the attainment of desired level of sustainable growth. This implies the need to implement a robust macroeconomic strategy to combat the undesirable social crisis and terrorist attack that has grossly undermined the productivity status of the economy.