Main Article Content
This exploratory study aims to determine the factors affecting the overall perceived job satisfaction of the employees working at different public banks in Bangladesh. The authors carefully selected seven such factors after searching the existing literature. Those seven factors: working hour, fair competition, equal treatment, psychological support & fun, promotional opportunity, benefit package and co-working relationship were considered as the independent variables while overall job satisfaction was considered as the single dependent variable. Primary data were collected from a valid sample of 360 public sector bank employers through a structured questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using SPSS (24) was utilized in order to validate the items of independent variables and structural equation modeling using AMOS (24) was utilized in order to test the hypothesized relationships between each independent variable and the dependent one. After proper statistical analysis, it was revealed that fair competition, equal treatment, promotional opportunity and working hour can positively and sufficiently influence the perceived overall job satisfaction of Bangladesh public bank employees while the other three factors, psychological stress & frustration, co-working relationship and benefit package were found to have insufficient influence over job satisfaction. The authors are well confident that this explorative study will guide the bank management in satisfying their competent employees in a more effective manner. Implications, limitations, and future directions have been also discussed in the study.
Huselid M. Special issue on small and medium sized enterprises: A call for more research. Human Resource Management. 2003;42:297-309.
Hosain MS. Adoption of proper HRM practices: A technique for retaining employees and increasing firm performance? Scholar Journal of Business and Social Science. 2105; 1(1):1-14.
Hosain MS, Alauddin M, Tanvir SI, Sawda US. Employee motivation in the non-government financing companies of Bangladesh. European Journal of Business and Management. 2013;5(12):121-130.
Hosain MS. The impact of E-HRM on organizational performance: Evidence from selective service sectors of Bangladesh. International Journal of Human Resources Management. 2017;6(3):1-14.
Eldor, L, Harpaz, I. A process model of employee engagement: The learning climate and its relationship with extra-role performance behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 2016;37(2):213-235.
Gahlawat N, Phogat SR, Kundu CS. Evidence for life satisfaction among dual career couples: The interplay of job, career and family satisfaction in relation to workplace support. Journal of Family Issues, 2019;40(18):1-29.
Islam T, Tariq J. Learning organizational environment and extra-role behaviors: The mediating role of employee engagement. Journal of Management Development. 2018;37(93):258-270.
Islam T, Khan MM, Khawaja FN, Ahmad Z. Nurses reciprocation of perceived organizational support: The moderating role of psychological contract breach. International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare. 2017;10(2):123-131.
Islam T, Ahmed I, Ali G. Effects of ethical leadership on bullying and voice behavior among nurses: Mediating role of organizational identification, poor working condition and work load. Leadership and Health Services. 2019;32(1):2-17.
Hong SJ, Choi D, Chae J. Exploring different airport users’ service quality satisfaction between service providers and air travelers. Journal of Retailing and Customers Services. 2020;52.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.101917 [Accessed on 20 November, 2020].
Sohail MT, Delin H. Job satisfaction surrounded by academies staff: A case study of job satisfaction of academies staff of the GCUL, Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business. 2013;4(11):126-137.
Hosain MS. The influence of financial and non-financial rewards; and employee empowerment on task motivation and firm performance of Bangladeshi front line employees: A critical approach. European Journal of Business and Management. 2014; 6(7):156-168.
Davis K, Newstrom JW. Organizational behavior, 2014 (15th Eds.), Tata McGraw- Hill, New Delhi; 2014.
Shrivastava A, Purang P. Employee satisfaction of job satisfaction: Comparative study on Indian banks. Asian Academy of Management Journal. 2009;14(2):65-78.
Rego A, Cunha MP. Authentic climates and employee happiness: Pathways to individual performance? Journal of Business Research. 2008;61(7):739-752.
Lambert EG, Paoline EA. Take this job and solve it: An exploratory study of turnover intent among jail staff. Journal of Criminal Justice. 2010;38:139-148.
Faroque O, Ferdausy S., Rahman MS. Factors affecting the job satisfaction of the employees in the private commercial banks of Bangladesh. Journal of Management Research. 2020;6(1):17-33.
Bader HAM, Hashim IHM, Zaharim NM. Job Satisfaction among bank employees in Eastern Libya. American International Journal of Social Science. 2013;2(1):30-44.
Sowmya KR, Panchanatham N. Factors influencing job satisfaction of banking sector employees in Chennai, India. Journal of Law and Conflict Resolution. 2011;3(5):76-79.
Jaiswal N. Quality of informal jobs in Indian’s banking sector: A primary study through the decent work framework. Indian Journal of Human Development, 2019;11:1-13.
De Gieter S, Hofmans J. How reward satisfaction affects employees’ turnover intentions and performance: An individual differences approach. Human Resource Management Journal, 2015;25(2):200-216.
Hosain MS. The relationship between corporate governance and corporate social responsibility expenditure in Bangladesh: Moderating role of firm value. Indian Journal of Corporate Governance, Ahead of print. 2020;13(2). Available:https://doi.org/10.1177/0974686220965330 [Accessed on: 19 November, 2020].
Karan R, Rahman MS, Biswas SR. Role of job attitudes on executives’ turnover intention at the different organizations in Chittagong City, Bangladesh. BUP Journal, 2018;6(1): 23-42.
Rahman MS, Karan R, Arif MI. Investigating the relationships among job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention: An empirical study. SIU Journal of Management. 2014;4(1):117-147.
Greenberg J, Baron RA. Behavior in Organizations (3rd Eds.), Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ; 1997.
Anleu RS, Mack K. Job satisfaction in the judiciary. Work, Employment and Society. 2014;28(5): 683-701.
Yang X., Wang W. Exploring the determinants of job satisfaction of civil servants in Beijing, China. Public Personnel Management. 2013;42(4):566-587.
Argyle M. The Social Psychology of Work (1st Eds.), Penguin, Harmondsworth; 1989.
Hodson D. Philosophy of science, science and science education. Studies in Science Education, 1985;12(1):25-57.
Kalleberg AL., Loscocoo KA. Aging, values and rewards: Explaining age differences in job satisfaction. American Sociological Review. 1983;48(1):78-90.
Hamermesh DS. The changing distribution of job satisfaction. Journal of Human Resources. 2001;36(1):1-30.
Freeman R. Job satisfaction is an economic variable. American Economic Review. 1978;68(2):135-141.
Burgard C, Görlitz K. Continuous training, job satisfaction and gender: An empirical analysis using German panel data. Evidence- Based HRM. A Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship. 2014;2(2):126-144.
Jung K, Jae-Moon M, Hahm SD. Do age, gender and sector affect job satisfaction? Results from the Korean labor and salary panel data. Review of Public Personnel Administration. 2007;27(2):125-146.
Wright B, Kim S. Participation’s influence on job satisfaction: The importance of job characteristics. Review of Public Personnel Administration. 2004;24(1):18-40.
Pepe A, Addimando L, Dagdukee J, Veronese, G. Psychological distress, job satisfaction and work engagement: A cross-sectional mediation study with a sample of Palestinian teachers. Educational Studies, 2019. Available:https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03055698.2019.1701990 [Accessed on 19 November, 2020].
Robbins SP, Judge TA. Organizational behavior (18th Eds.), Pearson, New Delhi; 2019.
Paposa KK, Kumar MY. Impact of training and development practices on job satisfaction: A study on faculty members of technical educations institutes. Management and Labor Studies. 2019;56(3):1-15.
Kaya N, Koc E, Topeu, D. An exploratory analysis of the influence of human resource management activities and organizational climate on job satisfaction in Turkish banks. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2010;21(11):2031-2051.
Idris A, See D, Coughlan P. Employee empowerment and job satisfaction in urban Malaysia: Connecting the dots with context and organizational change management. Journal of Organizational Change Management. 2018;31(3): 697-711.
Bastida R, Marimon F, Carreras L. Human resource management practices and employee job satisfaction in nonprofit organizations. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics. 2018;89(2):323-338.
Faroque O, Rahman MS, Rahman M. Association between leave provisions and job satisfaction: A study on commercial banks of Bangladesh. Society & Sustainability, 2019;1(1):67-80.
Islam N, Saha GC. Job satisfaction of bank officers in Bangladesh. ABAC Journal. 2001;21(3): 62-74.
Rahman MI, Gurung HB, Saha S. Where the job satisfaction of bank employees lies: An analysis of the satisfaction factors in Bangladesh. The cost and Management, Journal of ICMAB, 2006;34(3):33-37.
Faroque O, Islam MR, Rashid MA, Murtaza M. The impact of individual level variables on job satisfaction at the different commercial banks in Bangladesh. Man In India. 2014;94(1-2):371-381.
George E., Zakkariya K.A. Job related stress and job satisfaction: A comparative study among bank employees. Journal of Management Development. 2015;34(3):316-329.
Saner T, Eyupoglu ZS. The job satisfaction of bank employees in North Cyprus. Procedia Economics and Finance, 2015;23:1457-1460.
Bhardwaj A., Mishra S., Jain, TK. An analysis to understanding the job satisfaction of employees in banking industry. Materials Today: Materials Today: Proceedings; 2020. Available:http://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.04.783 [Accessed on 20 November, 2020].
Cherif F. The role of human resource management practices and employee job satisfaction in predicting organizational commitment in Saudi Arabian banking sector. International. Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. 2020;40(7/8):529-541.
Khalid S, Irshad MZ. Job satisfaction among bank employees in Punjab, Pakistan: A comparative study. European Journal of Social Sciences, 2010;17(4):570-577.
Aida I. Flexible working as an employee retention strategy in developing countries. Journal of Managerial Research. 2016;14(2):71-86.
Roy BN, Hossain MA, Shammi EJ. Job satisfaction of the bank employees in Bangladesh: A study in Bogra city. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology and Sciences, 2017; 37(1):34-43.
Indrasari M. The effect of organizational culture, environmental work and leadership style on the job satisfaction and its impact on the performance of teaching in State Community Academy Bojonegoro. SINERGI. 2017;7(2):58-73.
Huseyin A., Mustafa T. Nepotism, favoritism and cronyism: A study of their effects on job stress and job satisfaction in the banking industry of North Cyprus. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal. 2008;36(9):1237-1250.
Coetzee M, Jo-Anne B. The languishment of employee commitment in the light of perceptions of fair treatment in the workplace: Original research. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 2012;10(2):1-11.
Goswami TG. Job stress and its effects on employee performance in banking sector. Indian Journal of Commerce & Management Studies. 2015;6(2):51-56.
Ajayi S. Critical study of the effects of job stress on Nigerian bank workers: A case of Access Bank, Lagos, Nigeria, 2018. Available:https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3160620 [Accessed on 17 November, 2020].
Priyanka K, Singhal S. Increasing job stress with declining job satisfaction in banking employees: A consequence of work-family conflict. Sambodhi Journal. 2020;43(3):27-40.
Okpara JO. Gender and the relationship between perceived fairness in pay, promotion, and job satisfaction in a Sub‐Saharan African economy. Women in Management Review. 2006;21(3):224-240. Available:https://doi.org/10.1108/09649420610657407 [Accessed on 17 November, 2020].
Pnadey A, Rai R. Job satisfaction of SBI employees. International Journal in Management and Social Science. 2018;6(1):32-36.
Saif ZR. Job satisfaction of employees in banking sector of Afghanistan. Internationa Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development. 2020;3(3):179-197.
Baskar S. The influence of HR policy dimensions on the job satisfaction of employees of public sector banks: A study on Indian overseas bank. IUP Journal of Bank Management. 2016;15(4):45-71.
Haq AZM. Job satisfaction of employees of a private organization in Bangladesh. American Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2018;5(3):62-66.
Khairuddin KN., Omar Z. Co-worker support: A review of its concepts and benefits. Graduate Research in Education (GREDuc) 2016, Seminar driving excellence and advancement in educational research, University Putra Malaysia; 2016.
Hasan NAM, Jiea CT, Bidin R. Job satisfaction among bank employees: An investigation of pubic banking institution in Malaysia. Jurnal Kemanusiaan. 2018;16(1):33-39.
Banks.nd.org. Number of public operating in Bangladesh. Available:https://www.banksbd.org/banks/public.html [Accessed on: 18 November, 2020].
Yamane T. Elementary sampling theory, Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA; 1967.
Polit D, Hungler BP. Nursing Research: Principles and methods (6th Eds.), Science and Education Publishing: NJ, USA; 1991.
Hair JF, Anderson RE, Tatham RL, Black WC. Multivariate data analysis (2nd Eds.), Prentice Hall, New York; 1998;
MacKinnon DP. Research designs: Quantitative, qualitative, neuropsychological and biological (5th Eds.), Washington, DC, USA: American psychological association. 2008.
Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH. Psychometric theory (3rd Eds.), McGraw Hill: NY, USA; 1994.
Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using Multivariate Statistics (4th Eds.), Harper Collins: NY, USA. 2001.
Fornell C, Larcker DF. Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research. 1981;32:382-388.
Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE. Multivariate Data Analysis (7th Eds.), Pearson Education Limited: CA, USA; 2014.
Field A. Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows, Sage publications: London-Thousand Oaks- New Delhi; 2000.
Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ. Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (9th Eds.), CA: Pearson Education Limited: CA, USA; 2010.
Marsh HW, Hocevar D. Application of confirmatory factor analysis to the study of self-concept: First-and higher order factor models and their invariance across groups. Psychological Bulletin. 1985;97(3):562-582.
Baumgartner H, Homburg C. Applications of structural equation modeling in marketing and consumer research: A review. International Journal of Research in Marketing. 1996;13(2):139-161.
Doll WJ., Xia W., Torkzadeh G. A confirmatory factor analysis of the end-user computing satisfaction instrument. MIS Quarterly. 1994:36:453-461.
Bentler PM. Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin. 1990;107(2):238-246.
Hu LT, Bentler PM. Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to under parameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods. 1998;3(4):424-453.
Byrne BM. Structural equation modeling with AMOS (2nd Eds.), Routledge: NY, USA; 2010.
Diamantopoulos A, Siguaw J. Introducing LISERL, Sage: London, UK; 2000.
Browne MW, Cudeck R. Alternative ways of assessing model fit, sage focuses editions. 1993;154:136-136.
Falk RF, Miler NB. A primer for soft modeling, The University of Akron Press: NY, USA; 1991.