Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Performance of Employees in Tertiary Institutions : The Mediating Role of Work Motivation

Oluleye Seun Ogunmola *

Department of Business Administration, Ekiti State University, P.M.B. 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Roland Ohiozokhai Eguabor

Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, U.K.

Daniel Adigwe Ogbechi

Hallmark University Ijebu-Itele, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Chinaedum Daniel Ogbechi

University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.

Henry Chiedu Halim

Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku, Delta State, Nigeria.

Anass Hmadelneel Adow

Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Emotional intelligence is an important concept in organisational psychology that plays a significant role in the performance of employees. Despite this, empirical investigation on the mediating role of work motivation in the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance is under-researched. Hence, this study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance with the introduction of work motivation as a mediating variable. The descriptive survey involved a heterogeneous sample of 370 non-academic staff from selected tertiary institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria.  The relationship between EI and performance was tested using multiple linear regression, while the mediation model was analysed through the Hayes bootstrapping method in SPSS version 25. Findings from the study suggested self-emotion appraisal and regulation of emotion as statistically significant predictors of job performance. Work motivation was found to partially mediate the relationship between EI and job performance among the sample.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence, job performance, employee performance, work motivation, Hayes mediation, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation

How to Cite

Ogunmola, Oluleye Seun, Roland Ohiozokhai Eguabor, Daniel Adigwe Ogbechi, Chinaedum Daniel Ogbechi, Henry Chiedu Halim, and Anass Hmadelneel Adow. 2024. “Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Performance of Employees in Tertiary Institutions : The Mediating Role of Work Motivation”. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting 24 (6):147-63.


Download data is not yet available.


Abraham OA. Factors influencing motivation and how it affects employee performance. Iconic Research and Engineering Journals. 2019;3(2):702–713.

Ahmad PS. Motivation and performance: A psychological process. International Journal of Business and Management Research. 2021;9(2):104–112.


Akram M, Afzal U, Ramay MI. Mediating role of organizational commitment in relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance: Evidence from higher education sector of Pakistan. GMJACS. 2017;7(1):110–120.

Asrar-ul-haq, M., Anwar, S., & Hassan, M. (2017). Impact of emotional intelligence on teacher’s performance in higher education institutions of Pakistan. Future Business Journal, 3(2), 87–97.


Boer JB, Hooft VE, Bakker BA. Self-control at work: Its relationship with Contextual Performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 2014;30(4):406–421.


Cherniss C, Goleman D. An EI-based theory of performance. In The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace. 1998;1–18.

Chipumuro J. Emotional intelligence and performance effectiveness: A gender comparison at Stenden South Africa. Management and Innovation For Competitive Advantage. 2015;694–709.

Chong SC, Falahat M, Lee YS. Emotional intelligence and job performance of academicians in Malaysia. International Journal of Higher Education. 2020;9(1):69–80.


DeNisi AS, Murphy KR. Performance appraisal and performance management: 100 years of progress? Journal of Applied Psychology. 2017;102:421–433.


Field A. Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics (4th ed.). Sage Publications; 2013.

Forson JA, Dwamena EO, Opoku RA, Adjavon SE. Employee motivation and job performance: A study of basic school teachers in Ghana. Future Business Journal. 2021;7(1):1–12.


Goleman D. Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. Bantam Books; 1995.

Gravetter FJ, Wallnau LB. Statistics for the behavioral sciences (5th ed). Wadsworth – Thomson Learning; 2000.

Gunu U, Oladepo RO. Impact of emotional intelligence on employees’ performance and organizational commitment: A case study of dangote flour mills workers. University of Mauritius Research Journal. 2014;20(5):1–32.


Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE. Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Prentice Hall; 2010.

Hair Jr JF, Hult GTM, Ringle C, Sarstedt M. A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications, Inc; 2016.

Harman HH. Modern factor analysis. University of Chicago Press; 1960.

Hayes AF. Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Publications; 2017.

Heider F. Attitudes and Cognitive Organisation. The Journal of Psychology. 1946;21(4):107–112.

Howitt D, Cramer D. Introduction to SPSS Statistics in psychology for version 19 and earlier (5th ed). Pearson Education Inc; 2011.

Hummon NP, Doreian P. Some dynamics of social balance processes: Bringing Heider back into balance theory. Social Networks. 2003;25:17–49.


Hutapea A, Nurhayati M. The effect of emotional intelligence and organizational commitment on employee performance through work motivation. International Journal of Indonesian Business Review. 2022;1(1):90–103.


Karunanithy K, Ponnampalam A. A study on the effect of stress on the performance of employees in Commercial Bank of Ceylon in the Eastern Province. European Journal of Business and Management. 2013;5(27):87–95.

Kaur J, Sharma A. Emotional intelligence and work performance. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering. 2019;8(2S3):1658–1664.


Khan AR. Effect of manager’s emotional intelligence on employee performance. Journal of Human Resource Studies. 2023;2(1):14–21.


Khraim HS. The impact of emotional intelligence on job performance at private hospitals: The moderating role of organizational culture. Problems and Perspectives in Management. 2023;21(1):459–470.


Koopmans L. Individual work performance questionnaire instruction manual. TNO Innovation for Life – VU University Medical Center; 2015.

Koopmans L, Bernaards CM, Hildebrandt VH, Lerner D, Vet HCW, De, Beek AJ. Van Der. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire. Work. 2015;53(3): 609–619.


Kossek EE, Kalliath T, Kalliath P. Achieving employee wellbeing in a changing work environment: An expert commentary on current scholarship. International Journal of Manpower. 2012;33:738–753.

Kuvaas B. Performance appraisal satisfaction and employee outcomes: Mediating and moderating roles of work motivation. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2006;17(3):504–522.

Legault L. Self-Determination Theory. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. Springer International Publishing. 2017;1–10.


Lestari IAPW, Wibawa IMA. Job satisfaction mediating towards effect of emotional intelligence on performance. International Research Journal of Management, IT and Social Sciences. 2019;6(5):158–166.


Lu TP, Chen J. The effects of teacher ’ s emotional intelligence on team-member exchange and job performance: The moderating role of teacher seniority. Current Psychology. 2023;2:1–14.


Lutaaya SS, Mande M, Charles E. Emotional intelligence competence and job performance of part time academic staff in private universities in Kampala metropolitan area. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research. 2021;9(1):31–41.

Luthans F. Organisational Behaviour (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill; 1992.

Manzoor F, Wei L, Asif M. Intrinsic rewards and employee’ s performance with the mediating mechanism of employee’ s motivation. Frontiers in Psychology. 2021;1–13.


Mario C. Theories of self-determination. Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance. 2019;1–6.


Marlina D, Majid MSA, Madjid I. Mediated effect of motivation on the influences of emotional intelligence and competency on employees’ performance. IOSR Journal of Business and Management. 2018;20(8): 27–35.


Mayer JD, Salovey P, Caruso D. Competing models of emotional intelligence: Handbook of human intelligence (R. J. Sternberg (ed.); Second Ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press; 2000.

Minami AL, Ramos C, Bortoluzzo AB. Sharing economy versus collaborative consumption: What drives consumers towards new forms of exchange? Journal of Business Research. 2021;128:1–20.

Munir M, Azam RI. Emotional intelligence and employee performance: An intervention based experimental study. Journal of Business and Economics. 2019;9(2):1–19.


Mwabu GM. Influence of employee motivation on performance in selected research institutions in Nairobi City County, Kenya. International Academic Journal of Human Resource and Business Administration. 2019;3(6):354–374.


Naqvi STA, Siddiqui AN. The impact of emotional intelligence on job performance with a mediating role of job satisfaction. Market Forces. 2023;18(1):63–96.


Naz B, Fida MK, Khan MZ. Emotional intelligence and job performance of employees working in the financial sector of Pakistan: Job satisfaction as the mediator. Journal of Professional and Applied Psychology. 2022;3(4):403–416.


Nduka O. Employee motivation and performance (Issue December). Centria University of Applied Sciences; 2016.

Nguyen NN, Nham PT, Takahashi Y. Relationship between Ability-Based Emotional Intelligence, Cognitive Intelligence, and Job Performance. Sustainability. 2019;11(2299):1–16.

Nicol AAM, Pexman PM. Displaying your findings: A practical guide for creating figures, posters, and presentations (2nd ed). American Psychological Association; 2010.

Nongo SE. Emotional intelligence and performance among nursing professionals in tertiary hospitals in Benue State of Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Management. 2018;10(9):48–56.


Nunnally JC. Psychometric Theory. McGraw-Hill; 1978.

Nwanzu CL, Babalola SS. Examining the moderating role of workload in the relationship between emotional intelligence and caring behavior in healthcare organizations. Int. Journal of Business Science and Applied Management. 2020;15(1):1–13.

Octoyuda E, Silalahi ADK, Silaban PH. Work motivation in mediating emotional intelligence to improve employees’ job performance of state-owned enterprise in port and maritime management. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry. 2021;12(6):9693–9701.

Oyoru RA, Ambali A. Mediating effect of employee commitment on the relationship between emotional intelligence and employee performance: A study of listed food and beverages companies in Nigeria. Journal of Administrative Science. 2022;19(2):229–246.

Pekaar KA, Linden D, Van Der, Bakker AB, Born MP. Emotional intelligence and job performance : The role of enactment and focus on others’ emotions. Human Performance. 2017;30(2–3):135–153.


Pinder CC. Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press; 2014.

Podsakoff PM, Organ DW. Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management. 1986;12(4):531–544.

Praveena ST. Emotional intelligence on job performance of bank managers in Sri Lanka. OUSL Journal. 2015;9(5):41–59.


Rahman S, Ferdausy S, Karan R. Relationship among emotional intelligence, deviant workplace behavior and job performance: An empirical study. Portuguese Journal of Management Studies. 2012;17(1):39–62.

Raman P, Sambasivan M, Kumar N. Counterproductive work behavior among frontline government employees: Role of personality, emotional intelligence, affectivity, emotional labor, and emotional exhaustion. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. 2016;32(1):25–37.


Ramli AH, Novariani F. Emotional intelligence, organizational commitment and job performance in the private hospital. Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research. 2020;151(Icmae):280–284.

Ramos-Villagrasa PJ, Barrada JR, Fernández-del-Río E, Koopmans L. Assessing job performance using brief self-report scales: The case of the individual work performance questionnaire. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. 2019;35(3):195–205.


Rotundo M, Sackett P. The relative importance of task, citizenship and counterproductive performance to global ratings of job performance: A policy-capturing approach. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2002;87:66–80.


Ryan RM, Deci EL. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation from a self-determination theory perspective: Definitions, theory, practices, and future directions. Contemp. Educ. Psychol. 2020;61(101860).


Said NSM, Zaidee ASEA, Zahari ASM, Ali SRO, Salleh SM. Relationship between employee motivation and job performance: A study at universiti teknologi MARA. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2015;6(4):632–638.


Sathya A. Role of emotional intelligence in leadership behaviour - A review. Journal of Management. 2018;5(3):187–191.

Sekaran U, Bougie R. Research methods for business: A skill-building approach (7th ed.). John Wiley and Sons Ltd; 2016.

Shdaifat FH Al, Zyoud AAYAl. The impact of emotional intelligence on job performance in the gulf region. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Social Sciences. 2021;10(1): 41–46.


Singh K. Developing human capital by linking emotional intelligence with personal competencies in Indian business organizations. Int. Journal of Business Science and Applied Management. 2010;5(2):1–14.

Swinscow TD, Campbell MJ. Statistics at square one (10th ed). Viva Books Private Limited; 2003.

Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics (5th ed). Allyn and Bacon; 2007.

Thang D Van, Nghi NQ. The effect of work motivation on employee performance: The case at OTUKSA Japan company. World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews. 2022;13(1):404–412.


Tremblay MA, Blanchard CM, Taylor S, Pelletier LG, Villeneuve M. Work extrinsic and intrinsic motivation scale: Its value for organizational psychology research. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. 2009;41(4):213–226.


Uzonna UR. Impact of motivation on employees’ performance: A case study of CreditWest Bank Cyprus. Journal of Economics and International Finance. 2013;5(5):199–211.


Vratskikh I, Masa’deh R, Al-lozi M, Maqableh M. The impact of emotional intelligence on job performance via the mediating role of job satisfaction. International Journal of Business and Management. 2016;11(2):69–91.


Weiss H, Cropanzano R. Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, cause and consequences of affective experiences at work. Research in Organizational Behavior. 1996;18:1–74.

Whetten D, Cameron K, Woods M. Developing management skills for Europe. Addison-Wesley; 2000.

Wong C, Law KS. The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. Leadership Quarterly. 2002;13(3):243–274.


Yamane T. Statistics; An Introductory Analysis (2nd ed.). Harper and Row, Evanston and London and John Weatherhill, Inc; 1973.

Yin HY, Hussain IA, Jaafar FA. The impact of emotional intelligence on team performance among academic staffs, A study in private higher education institutes in Malaysia. Journal of Business and Economic Development. 2016;1(1):8–13.


Zainal N, Zawawi D, Aziz YA, Ali MH. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance among Employees in Malaysia Service Sector. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2017;7(12): 304–315. Available: